LATINOS & THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

Disparities in the Criminal Justice System

Works Cited – Disparities in the Criminal Justice System

Abel, L. (2009). Language Access in Immigration Courts. New York University School of Law: Brennan Center for Justice.

Administrative Office of the Courts (2013, March). Fact Sheet: Court Interpreters. Judicial Council of California: San Francisco, California.

Alarcón, D. (2015, May 27). How do you define a gang member? New York Times.

Allan, E. L. (2002). Policing by Injunction: Problem-Oriented Dimensions of Civil Gang Abatement in the State of California (Grant Number 2000-IJ-CX-0018).

Arnold, E. K. (2011). Oakland gang injunctions: Gentrification or public safety? Race, Poverty & the Environment, 18(2), 70–74.

Bailey, A., & Hayes, J. M. (2006). Who’s in prison? The changing demographics of incarceration. California Counts: Population Trends and Profiles, 8(1). Public Policy Institute of California.

Barajas, F. P. (2007). An invading army: A civil gang injunction in a Southern California Chicana/o community. Latino Studies, 5(4), 393–417.

Brame, R., Bushway, S. D., Paternoster, R., & Turner, M. G. (2014). Demographic Patterns of Cumulative Arrest Prevalence by Ages 18 and 23. Crime & Delinquency, 60(3), 471–486.

Bureau of Justice Statistics (2012). Immigration Offenders in the Federal Justice System, 2010. U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Justice Statistics Program.

Bureau of Justice Statistics (2013). Prisoners in 2012: Trends in Admissions and Releases, 1991–2012. U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Justice Statistics Program.

Caldwell, B. (2010). Criminalizing day-to-day life: A socio-legal critique of gang injunctions. American Journal of Criminal Law, 37(3), 241–290.

California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) (2011). 2011 CDCR Adult Institutions Outcome Evaluation Report. Sacramento, California: CDCR Office of Research, Research and Evaluation Branch.

California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) (2013). Prison Census Data as of June 30, 2013. Sacramento, California: Offender Information Services Branch, Estimates and Statistical Analysis Section.

California Department of Finance (2012). Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 2000–2010. Sacramento, California.

California Penal Code § 186.22.

Cano, M. V., & Spohn, C. (2012). Circumventing the penalty for offenders facing mandatory minimums: Revisiting the dynamics of “sympathetic” and “salvageable” offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39(3), 308–332.

Castro, M. (2011, January). Are San Francisco’s gang injunctions working? KALW News.

Cohen, T. H. (2012). Pretrial Release and Misconduct in Federal District Courts, 2008–2010. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.

Cohen, T. H., & Reaves, B. A. (2007). Pretrial Release of Felony Defendants in State Courts. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.

Crawford, L. (2009). No way out: An analysis of exit processes for gang injunctions. California Law Review, 97(1), 161–193.

Crow, M. S., & Johnson, K. A. (2008). Race, ethnicity, and habitual-offender sentencing: A multilevel analysis of individual and contextual threat. Criminal Justice Policy Review19(1), 63–83.

Demuth, S. (2002). The effect of citizenship status on sentencing outcomes in drug cases. Federal Sentencing Reporter14(5), 271–275.

Demuth, S. (2003). Racial and ethnic differences in pretrial release decisions and outcomes: A comparison of Hispanic, black, and white felony arrestees. Criminology41(3), 873–908.

Demuth, S., & Steffensmeier, D. (2004). Ethnicity effects on sentence outcomes in large urban courts: Comparisons among white, black, and Hispanic defendants. Social Science Quarterly85(4), 994–1011.

Donohue, J., & Levitt, S. (2001). The impact of race on policing and arrests. Journal of Law and Economics44, 367–394.

Fennessy, M., & Huss, M. T. (2013). Predicting success in a large sample of federal pretrial offenders: The influence of Ethnicity. Criminal Justice and Behavior40(1), 40–56.

Grattet, R., & Hayes, J. (2013). California’s Changing Prison Population. Public Policy Institute of California.

Guerino, P., Harrison, P. M., and Sabol, W. (2011). Prisoners in 2010. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Hartley, R. D., Maddan, S., & Spohn, C. C. (2007). Prosecutorial discretion: An examination of substantial assistance departures in federal crack-cocaine and powder-cocaine cases. Justice Quarterly, 24(3), 382–407.

King, R. D., Johnson, K. R., & McGeever, K. (2010). Demography of the legal profession and racial disparities in sentencing. Law & Society Review44(1), 1–32.

Kochel, T. R., Wilson, D. B., & Mastrofski, S. D. (2011). Effect of suspect race on officers’ arrest decisions. Criminology49(2), 473–512.

Kutateladze, B., Tymas, W., & Crowley, M. (2014). Race and Prosecution in Manhattan. New York: Vera Institute of Justice.

Lancaster, C., Balkin, R. S., Garcia, R., & Valarezo, A. (2011). An evidence‐based approach to reducing recidivism in court‐referred youth. Journal of Counseling & Development89(4), 488–492.

Levin, D. (2008). Pretrial Release of Latino Defendants, U.S. Department of Justice: Pretrial Justice Institute.

Light, M. T. (2014). The new face of legal inequality: Noncitizens and the long-term trends in sentencing disparities across U.S. district courts, 1992–2009. Law & Society Review, 48(2), 447–478.

Light, M. T., Lopez, M. H., & Gonzalez-Barrera, A. (2014). The Rise of Federal Immigration Crimes: Unlawful Reentry Drives Growth. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.

Lipsey, M. W., & Cullen, F. T. (2007). The effectiveness of correctional rehabilitation: A review of systematic reviews. Annual Review of Law and Social Science3, 297–320.

Logue, M. A. (2009). “The price of being Mexican”: Sentencing disparities between noncitizen Mexican and non-Mexican Latinos in the federal courts. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences31(4), 423–445.

Lopez, M. H., and Light, M. T. (2009). A Rising Share: Hispanics and Federal Crime. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.

Los Angeles City Attorney (2014). Gang Injunctions.

McGovern, V., Demuth, S., & Jacoby, J. E. (2009). Racial and ethnic recidivism risks: A comparison of postincarceration rearrest, reconviction, and reincarceration among white, black, and Hispanic releases. The Prison Journal89(3), 309–327.

Reedt, L., & Widico-Stroop, J. (2008). Changing Face of Federal Criminal Sentencing: Seventeen Years of Growth in the Federal Sentencing Caseload. United States Sentencing Commission.

Rodriguez, N. (2007). Restorative justice at work: Examining the impact of restorative justice resolutions on juvenile recidivism. Crime & Delinquency, 53(3), 355–379.

Schlesinger, T. (2005). Racial and ethnic disparity in pretrial criminal processing. Justice Quarterly, 22(2), 170–192.

The Sentencing Project (2013). Racial Disparity.

Spohn, C. (2000). Thirty years of sentencing reform: The quest for a racially neutral sentencing process. Criminal Justice3, 427–501.

State of California, Department of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 2000–2010. Sacramento, California, September 2012.

Sutton, J. R. (2013). Structural bias in the sentencing of felony defendants. Social Science Research, 42(5), 1207–1221.

Ulmer, J. T., Kurlycheck, M. C., & Kramer, J. H. (2007). Prosecutorial discretion and the imposition of mandatory minimum sentences. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 44(4), 427–458.

U.S. Census Bureau (2012). Employed Civilians by Occupation, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 2010 (Table 616, Current Population Survey).

United States Sentencing Commission (2011). Report to the Congress: Mandatory Minimum Penalties in the Federal Criminal Justice System.

Wang, C. (2007). Gang injunctions under heat from equal protection: Selective enforcement as a way to defeat discrimination. Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly, 35(2007–2008), 287–308.

Withrow, B. L. (2004). Race‐based policing: A descriptive analysis of the Wichita Stop Study. Police Practice and Research5(3), 223–240.

Wu, J. & D’Angelo, J. M. (2014). Unwarranted disparity in federal sentencing: Noncitizen crime as a social/group threat. Criminal Justice Review, 39(1), 58–80.

Yeung, B. (2012, December 6). Calif. courts face federal scrutiny over interpreter access. California Watch.

Youth Justice Coalition (2012). Tracked and Trapped: Youth of Color, Gang Databases and Gang Injunctions.



Fatal error: Call to undefined function get_field() in /home6/roberto1/public_html/safeandjust.uscmediacurator.com/wp-content/themes/uscprice/single.php on line 27